Mr. Justin Trudeau, Prime Minister of Canada, and Mr. Donald Tusk, President of the European Council, met in Montreal on July 17-18, 2019 for the 17th Canada-European Union Summit. They issued the following statement:
- The partnership between Canada and the European Union (EU) is deep and lasting, with its roots in shared values, a long history of close cooperation, and strong people-to-people ties.
- The Canada-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement (SPA) and the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) reflect our shared commitment to addressing global challenges in a manner that benefits our citizens, upholds our values, and strengthens the rules-based international order.
- We will further deepen our cooperation to deliver economic growth that benefits everyone, combat climate change and protect the environment, advance international peace and security, promote gender equality and women’s empowerment and foster innovation.
I. Canada-EU Relations and the Rules-Based International Order
- We reaffirm the importance of protecting, reforming and renewing the rules-based international order, with the UN at its core. We are opposed to all attempts to undermine laws, norms and institutions that govern peaceful international cooperation. We are united in our commitment to multilateralism, democracy and the rule of law. In this context, Canada is joining the Council of Europe’s European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission), which will help Canada and the EU collectively advance democratic principles, human rights and fundamental freedoms.
- We will continue to take a principled stand together to promote and protect respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms at all levels, while reaffirming our dedication to defend the rights of all people to express themselves freely and in peace and security. We call on like-minded countries of the world to stand with us in unity of purpose. Canada and the EU denounce, in the strongest possible terms, resurgent forms of racism, discrimination, and xenophobia. We will intensify our efforts to combat and counter all manifestations of hatred and incitement to violence. Canada and the EU will coordinate closely, in line with the principles of the Christchurch Call to Action, in order to prevent social media and other platforms from being used as tools to incite, publish and promote terrorism, violence, and hatred. We will continue to strongly and fully support the International Criminal Court (ICC) and its work and we recall that the ICC is an indispensable instrument of the international community to combat impunity and promote a rules-based international order.
- The SPA gives us a platform for cooperation on issues of common interest including international peace and security, counter-terrorism and violent extremism, multilateralism, human rights, non-proliferation, clean energy, climate change, environmental protection, labour rights, migration, sustainable development, and innovation. We will follow up on the priorities set by the last Joint Ministerial Committee, including election observation, the Ocean Partnership, the mobility of researchers and students, and energy cooperation.
- CETA helps our citizens and businesses to seize the opportunities presented by our trade and economic relationship. Since its provisional application, citizens of the EU and Canada have benefitted from increased trade in many sectors. We commit to ensure further progress towards full and effective implementation of CETA to fulfill its potential in all sectors and, in this respect, take note of the recent opinion of the Court of Justice of the European Union confirming the compatibility of CETA’s investment chapter with the EU Treaties. Additionally, we will adopt decisions to implement operationally CETA’s Investment Court System, including the rules of procedures for the adoption of binding interpretations. We also pledge to continue our co-operation to establish a Multilateral Investment Court. We will also put into effect the recommendations adopted by the CETA Joint Committee on (i) trade, climate action and the Paris Agreement, (ii) trade and gender, and (iii) small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
- CETA enables greater cooperation between Canada and the EU to address climate change and other global environmental challenges. We reaffirmed our strong commitment to the principle, as set out in CETA, that trade agreements should fully preserve the ability of governments to regulate in the public interest, especially with regard to public services and areas such as the environment, culture, health and safety, and labour protection. This is a cornerstone of CETA.
- CETA also demonstrates our shared ambition for inclusive trade that is beneficial to all parts of the economy and all segments of society. As such, we recognize the framework established by Canada and the EU under CETA to enhance commercial opportunities for SMEs. In addition, we recognize the framework established under CETA for Canada and the EU to cooperate to make trade policies more gender-responsive in order to ensure that the benefits of trade liberalisation are widely spread.
- We are pleased with the progress of negotiations towards the mutual recognition of our Authorised Economic Operator programmes. This will simplify border processes and enhance the security of the supply chain for registered Canadian and European businesses. We are committed to concluding the Agreement expeditiously as it will work hand-in-hand with CETA to further facilitate two-way trade across the Atlantic.
- We are pleased to have concluded negotiations for a new Passenger Name Record (PNR) Agreement. While Canada noted its requirement for legal review, the Parties commit, subject to that review, to finalizing the Agreement as soon as possible, acknowledging the vital role of this Agreement in enhancing security while ensuring privacy and the protection of personal data.
- We reaffirm our WTO-related commitments at the Charlevoix G7 Summit and at the Osaka G20 Summit., including our strong support for the multilateral trading system and the indispensable role that the World Trade Organization (WTO) plays in facilitating and safeguarding international rules-based trade. We share a common resolve for rapid and concerted action to address the unprecedented challenges facing the multilateral trading system and to fight back against growing protectionist tendencies around the world. In this regard, we will work together to strengthen and modernize the WTO, including by developing new rules addressing underlying trade tensions such as on industrial subsidies, resolving the blockage of its Appellate Body and improving its deliberative and monitoring functions, engaging with other key WTO members as appropriate.
- Canada and the EU are committed to preserving a functioning WTO dispute settlement system. We strongly support the process initiated by the General Council Chair to restore a fully operational WTO Appellate Body without delay, and urgently call on all members to engage fully in this process. In the event these efforts are unsuccessful, and pending the resolution of the blockage of the Appellate Body which remains our clear priority, due diligence commands that we work together on an interim arrangement to preserve our rights in WTO disputes. Canada and the EU are finalizing an interim appeal arbitration arrangement based on existing WTO rules which could apply until the WTO Appellate Body is able to hear new appeals again. Such an interim arrangement reflects our commitment to the rules-based trading system and will preserve the essential features of the WTO dispute settlement mechanism.
- We reaffirm the universality of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and our shared commitment to support the achievement of its Sustainable Development Goals and targets, including fulfilling the pledge to leave no one behind and endeavoring to reach the furthest behind first. In this regard, support to developing countries will be crucial. We also reaffirm the Addis Ababa Action Agenda on Financing for Development.
II. Economic Growth that Benefits Everyone
- The benefits of economic growth must be available to everyone. By helping people adapt to the changing nature of work and creating a culture of lifelong learning, we will ensure that our citizens benefit from technological change and see economic growth reflected in their everyday lives, jobs, wages, and pensions. We recognize that employment and decent work must reflect evolving social circumstances, particularly the importance of ensuring our citizens have opportunities for work that delivers a good wage, safety in the workplace, and social protection measures.
- We underline gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls as essential to building prosperous, safe, democratic, peaceful and sustainable societies. Eliminating all forms of discrimination against women and girls, including all forms of gender-based violence, is also crucial so that they can have equal access to opportunities, participate fully in society and be agents of change to improve their own lives and communities. Through our efforts in the developing countries where we work, including in fragile and conflict affected situations, we also reaffirm our commitment to supporting girls' access to quality education and skills development, and women’s full economic and political participation.
- We recognize the importance of research and innovation collaboration to tackle societal challenges and promote sustainable development. We are committed to reinforce cooperation by pursuing shared priorities and developing joint initiatives under Horizon Europe, Copernicus and relevant Canadian programmes. We therefore welcome the decision under Canada's New Frontiers in Research Fund to allocate up to $50 million over five years specifically to support Canadian participation in international teams applying for funding through the EU’s Horizon 2020 and Horizon Europe.
- We encourage increased cooperation on innovation between Canadian and European institutions. Partnership between Canadian and European ‘innovation clusters,’ which include businesses, academic institutions and not-for-profit organizations, spurs economic growth and competitiveness and strengthens skills development. Recently Canada the EU signed an administrative arrangement to facilitate future government-to-government, cluster- to-cluster, and business-to-business collaboration. We look forward to future opportunities to exchange and develop SME business-to-business partnerships.
- Canada and the EU are committed to responding to technological change in a manner that upholds democracy, respects human rights, and advances our shared values. We are determined to realize the benefits that a creative, digital economy can bring to our citizens and businesses. Canada and the EU have agreed to advance bilateral cooperation on digital policy, while focusing on emerging priorities including artificial intelligence, blockchain, quantum computing, disinformation and protecting our democratic values in a digital world. Both parties reaffirmed their commitment to the regular exchange of information, joint cooperation in multilateral fora and sharing of best practices to better prepare for the opportunities and challenges of an increasingly digitized economy.
- In addition, we will deepen our cooperation on artificial intelligence (AI). AI represents a set of complex and powerful technologies that will touch or transform every sector and industry and will influence all human activity. We are committed to ensuring that we advance these technologies with a human-centric and multi-stakeholder approach, in harmony with our laws, policies and common values. We commit to working together and with like-minded partners to achieve global consensus on this approach. To this end, the EU supports the initiative to establish an International Panel on Artificial Intelligence, announced by Canada and France in 2018, to drive the responsible development, use and adoption of AI that fully respects human rights, and is grounded in inclusion, innovation and economic growth.
III. Climate Change and Environment, Energy and Innovation
- In the light of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, we welcome the adoption at the UNFCCC COP24 of the Katowice rulebook and reaffirm our commitment to supporting the ambitious and effective implementation of the Paris Agreement by all Parties, and to work with our international partners to that end, including in view of the UN Climate Action Summit in September 2019. We call on all countries to respond credibly with ambition to meeting the Paris objectives, and we remain determined to show leadership through ambitious long-term greenhouse gas reductions strategies by 2020, and strengthening bilateral cooperation in all relevant forums.
- As members of Mission Innovation, we have pledged to double our research, development and demonstration investments in clean energy technology, and will continue efforts to mobilize climate finance for action in developing country Parties, including in the Africa Renewable Energy Initiative (AREI) framework. We will continue to advance ambitious climate action, promote clean growth and the transition to a circular economy, innovation, sustainable finance, the development of sustainable resources and technologies, switching to clean power, and improvements in energy efficiency. We welcome efforts to advance discussions on critical raw materials required for clean technologies.
- We reaffirm our determination to address the effects of climate change in and on the Arctic, including by supporting scientific assessments and monitoring the impacts of climate change and by working with Indigenous Peoples and local communities to develop appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies, including actions that protect biodiversity and the integrity of infrastructure, with due respect of governmental mandates. We will build on the efforts of the Arctic Council to track and reduce emissions of black carbon and methane and we will explore enhancing ongoing bilateral Arctic research collaboration such as through the Atlantic Ocean Research Alliance on the implementation of the Galway Statement. We note the important contribution of geospatial data and science for understanding and monitoring the impacts of climate change and for informed decision-making, and endeavour to collaborate in the exploitation of space capacities to find sustainable development solutions that help address global challenges.
- We reiterate our commitment to continuing discussions on border mobility issues across the Canada-Greenland border to enhance economic, social and cultural opportunities. This renewed partnership is based, inter alia, on the recognition of rights in line with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, and the principles of respect, cooperation and partnership.
- We welcome the signature of the Canada-EU Ocean Partnership by Minister Catherine McKenna for Canada and Commissioner Cecilia Malmström for the EU, today. The new Ocean partnership reaffirms our commitment to the Charlevoix Blueprint on Healthy Oceans, Seas and Resilient Coastal Communities. It will strengthen our ocean governance and leadership, including supporting more resilient coasts and coastal communities, improving ocean science and data, facilitating sustainable use of the oceans and fisheries, and tackling marine litter.
- We reaffirm our commitment to move toward a more resource-efficient and sustainable approach to the management of plastics. We will continue to work with governments, businesses and organizations to promote the Ocean Plastics Charter, adopted on the margins of the Charlevoix G7 Summit, and previous plastics-related commitments under the G7, G20 and 2030 Agenda. We recognize the need to take a life-cycle approach to plastics stewardship on land and at sea, strengthen materials and waste management systems, stimulate innovation for sustainable solutions, technologies and alternatives, and continue to advance science and raise public awareness of this pressing global issue.
- We welcome the outcomes of the Global Nature Summit hosted by Canada, which will advance and accelerate action on biodiversity and link with the global agendas on climate change and oceans. We also welcome other high-level international efforts on this issue, such as those through France’s G7 Presidency, as we work together towards an inclusive and ambitious post-2020 framework under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
- We welcome ongoing co-operation in the framework of the EU-Canada High Level Dialogue on Energy. We acknowledge the importance of cooperating in multilateral energy forums with a view to pursuing shared objectives, such as the energy transition and energy security. We are pleased with the results of the Tenth Clean Energy Ministerial and the Fourth Mission Innovation Ministerial. There, Canada, the EU and other partners reaffirmed their commitment to fostering energy transitions that combine economic growth with decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, and discussed strengthening cooperation among members and other stakeholders in this clean energy transition.
IV. Democracy, Human Rights, and International Peace and Security
- We commit to working more closely together on these vital issues in key multilateral organizations, including across the UN system, and on the ground in the most challenging areas.
- We are vigilant about the need to protect and reinforce our democratic institutions, processes and principles against foreign threats. We will continue to collaborate and share best practices, both bilaterally and through multilateral mechanisms, including the G7 Rapid Response Mechanism (RRM) established under Canada's 2018 G7 presidency.
- We welcome our new Administrative Arrangement to facilitate Canada’s participation in EU Election Observation Missions. This framework will expand our practical cooperation to support democracy through promoting inclusive, credible and transparent elections.
- The EU and Canada remain committed to the promotion, protection and fulfilment of all human rights and to the full and effective implementation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) and the outcomes of their review conferences and remain committed to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR), in this context. Having that in mind, the EU and Canada reaffirm their commitment to the promotion, protection and fulfilment of the right of every individual to have full control over, and decide freely and responsibly on matters related to their sexuality and sexual and reproductive health, free from discrimination, coercion and violence. The EU and Canada further stress the need for universal access to quality and affordable comprehensive sexual and reproductive health information, education, including comprehensive sexuality education, and health-care services. We also commit to continuing to support women’s movements and other human rights defenders which are on the front lines of promoting and protecting the human rights of women and girls to advance gender equality and empowerment in their communities.
- We will work to counter those who threaten international peace and security, including through our annual security and defence dialogue. We reaffirm our full commitment to the implementation of the Women, Peace and Security (WPS) agenda, on which our respective WPS Ambassadors will work closely together. Furthermore, we will promote the systemic integration of the gender perspective and support women’s equal and meaningful participation in decision-making at all levels and in all sectors of peace and security. We will deepen our coordination to enhance our response to the survivors and victims of gender-based violence, especially their specific medical, psychological and social needs and as such encourage initiatives aiming at enhancing rapid response and support to survivors and victims, including in providing medical, psychological, social assistance relief efforts.
- We welcome close cooperation in our peace support and stabilization efforts, including through longstanding Canadian contributions to EU crisis management missions and operations. These include current Canadian police deployments in civilian missions in Ukraine (EUAM Ukraine), the West Bank (EUPOL COPPS), Mali (EUCAP Sahel Mali), and Iraq (EUAM Iraq).
- We stress that enhanced security and defence efforts of the EU, including strengthening NATO-EU cooperation, substantially contribute, in a coherent manner, to international peace and security, including a secure Europe, entailing both benefits and responsibilities, and fostering an equitable sharing of the burden for those countries concerned.
- Canada and the EU are determined to collaborate even more closely on restrictive measures in order to increase their effectiveness and efficiency, and thereby to generate the changes in behaviour they are intended to achieve, while avoiding any unintended consequences, and to fully respect human rights and the rule of law. Canada and the EU strongly oppose the extraterritorial application of unilateral restrictive measures in breach of international law.
- We remain committed in our support for Ukraine’s independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity within its internationally recognised borders. We reiterate our continued condemnation of the illegal annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol by Russia and we remain committed to our policy of non-recognition of this illegal annexation. On March 15, 2019, in close coordination, Canada and the EU, along with the U.S., announced sanctions in response to Russia’s aggressive actions in Ukraine, including Russia’s illegal seizure of 24 Ukrainian sailors and three vessels near the Kerch Strait in November 2018. We call on Russia to immediately release the detained Ukrainian sailors and vessels, as ordered by the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. We condemn the Russian measures entitling Ukrainian citizens of the areas currently not under the control of the Government to apply for Russian citizenship in a simplified manner. Canada is taking action to ensure that these Russian passports cannot be used to travel to Canada. The EU also stands ready to consider further options, including non-recognition of Russian passports issued in contradiction to the Minsk agreements, in close coordination with international partners. We stand with Ukraine and encourage it to continue implementing robust and inclusive reforms, creating a dynamic economy and establishing transparent, accountable governance for all its citizens, based on the rule of law and the protection and promotion of human rights, including the rights of persons belonging to minorities. We welcome the outcomes of the Ukraine Reform Conference, held in in Toronto on July 2-4.
- We will also expand cooperation on countering hybrid and cyber threats and disinformation, including via our work with the European Centre of Excellence (CoE) on Countering Hybrid Threats, the NATO Strategic Communications CoE and the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence CoE.
- The EU and Canada recall that the Iran nuclear deal, the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA), is a key element of the global non-proliferation architecture and a significant diplomatic achievement endorsed unanimously by the UN Security Council in its Resolution 2231, and reaffirm their commitment to its continued full and effective implementation. While recalling that Iran had fully implemented its nuclear-related commitments under the JCPOA as confirmed by 15 consecutive International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports, both sides expressed deep concern that Iran is now pursuing activities inconsistent with its JCPOA commitments. Both sides urged Iran to reverse these activities and return to full JCPOA compliance without delay. Both sides continue to regret the decision by the United States to withdraw from the JCPOA and reimpose sanctions.
- We stand in solidarity with the people of Venezuela as they seek to restore constitutional democracy and human rights, and agree to increase cooperation to contribute to a political, peaceful, and democratic solution to the Venezuelan crisis. We express our full support for the democratically elected National Assembly. We agree that a peaceful and sustainable resolution of the crisis can only be achieved through the leadership and courage of Venezuelans themselves, with support from the international community. We call for presidential elections to be held as soon as possible in accordance with the Venezuelan constitution and international standards.
- We will deepen our engagement with China to promote effective multilateralism and the rules-based international order, the respect for international law and fundamental norms governing international relations, with the three pillars of the UN at its core. We are deeply concerned by the arbitrary detention of Canadian and EU citizens in China. We will continue to support each other’s efforts in this regard. Canada and the EU strongly oppose the use of the death penalty in all cases, everywhere. We also emphasize the need for full respect of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and, in particular, the immunities provided for in Article 39.2, as well as the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations.
- On Syria, we reiterate our call on all parties to prioritize the protection of civilians, and to ensure the cessation of hostilities and unhindered, safe and sustainable humanitarian access throughout all of Syria. We welcome the outcomes of the recent Brussels III Conference on Supporting the Future of Syria and the Region. We fully support the ongoing work of the UN Special Envoy Geir Pedersen towards a credible and viable political transition based on UN Security Council Resolution 2254 and the 2012 Geneva Communique. We agree that international support towards Syria’s reconstruction can only take place when a comprehensive, genuine and inclusive political transition is firmly under way. We are committed to justice and will continue to fight against impunity in Syria. We will support mechanisms, such as the Commission of Inquiry and the International, Impartial and Independent Mechanism, to hold accountable all those responsible for violations of international law, including the Assad regime and Daesh.
- Migration is a global reality which creates both opportunities and challenges for migrants and their countries of origin, transit and destination. We will share best practices, including on the social and economic integration of migrants, refugees and forcibly displaced persons, taking into account respective national capacities and competencies. We welcome international cooperation and commit to respecting the human rights of all. We will also continue to work together to address the challenges faced by displaced persons, migrants and host societies, as well as the root causes of irregular migration and forced displacement.
- The broad and deep relationship between Canada and the EU is thriving, anchored firmly in our shared commitment to the rule of law, democracy, human rights, and multilateralism. We will continue to expand our cooperation in order to project these values abroad, advance our common interests, and deliver better lives for our citizens and people around the world. Further cooperation on people-to-people ties will be mutually beneficial. We look forward to our next Summit in Europe, and we celebrate in the countless connections that bind our peoples and renew our partnership every day.